Speed Dating Northern Beaches Airport
Texas is known for a lot of things, but its 600 miles of sparkling coastline are often overlooked. Manly Sea Eagles secure home on northern beaches with Lottoland sponsorship. As Thailand’s logging industry declined, out-of-work elephants and their mahouts headed for Phuket.
Melbourne late summer has got everyone flocking to the beaches including, it seems, the sharks. Meet 15 singles in just one night! SPEED DATING AUSTRALIA PTY LTD.© Speed Dating in Sydney with SYDNEY SPEED DATE. Thinking of Speed Dating here. Northern Ireland is located on the island of Ireland and is administratively part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland has stunning landscapes and scenery. What exactly is a SPEED DATING EVENT? Speed Dating is a very easy fun way to meet several singles in a particular age group in one night. History: The concept of.
Africa - Wikitravel. Africa. Africa has 5. Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by the Red Sea to the northeast, and by the Indian Ocean to the southeast.
Africa is a vast continent spanning over 8,0. Africa contains the world's longest river—the 6,6. Nile River running from Burundi to Egypt—while the Congo River in the DRC is the second largest in terms of discharge as well as the deepest with a depth of over 2. Tanzania's Mount Kilimanjaro is the world's tallest free- standing mountain at 5,8. Djibouti's Lake Assal is the second lowest point on Earth, the saltiest lake outside Antarctica, and one of the hottest places on Earth.
You can purchase crafts in markets, venture into the Sahara with a Tuareg caravan, visit pygmy villages, hike through jungle to watch gorillas, relax on tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, snack on exotic treats, travel down a river in a dugout . While it is common for people in the West to refer to Africa as if it was a single country, one should remember the sheer size of the continent, and that Africa is not one country but 5. Africa as a whole.
While there are some places resembling the stereotypical Africa of war, famine, and poverty, most of the continent is peaceful, well- fed, and of working class. Despite this long history of habitation, there is very little (or little known about) African history prior to the second millennium AD outside of North Africa, Sudan & Ethiopia, as most were hunter- gatherers similar to some cultures still found today on the continent, with no writing systems nor lasting structures, arts, or crafts (aside from some cave paintings). North Africa, on the other hand, has a recorded history dating back several millennia with bountiful structures, writings, arts, and crafts which have survived to this day. The ancient Pharonic civilization centred in modern- day Egypt is recognized as the longest- lasting and one of the, if not the, greatest ancient civilizations lasting from around 3. BC until the invasion of Persians in 5.
BC. Today, their legacy lives with many of their cities well- preserved and now popular tourist attractions along with a few museums hosting their artefacts. Modern Jews believe themselves to be descendants of slaves in ancient Egypt and much of the Hebrew Bible, religious texts for both Jews and Christians, was based and written in the region. The other great early civilizations on the continent were the Nubians in northern Sudan and southern Egypt, who were very similar to the ancient Egyptians, leaving behind the city of Meroe in Sudan, and the Aksumite Empire from the 4th century BC until the 7st century AD in modern- day Ethiopia and eastern Sudan which was important to trade between India and the Roman Empire and an important centre of early Christianity. In 3. 32 BC, Alexander the Great invaded Persian- occupied Egypt, establishing the famous city of Alexandria which would go on to serve as an important centre of scholarship and Greek culture for many centuries. Meanwhile, the Romans conquered much of the Mediterranean coastline to the west, leaving behind such ruins as Carthage and Leptis Magna. In the first century AD, Christianity spread through much of the region, first to Egypt, then Nubia, Ethiopia, and on to the Roman Empire. The newly- formed Arab caliphate invaded North Africa and the Horn of Africa within a few decades.
In the west, Berbers would intermarry with the Arab invaders to become the Moorish population that would later invade the Iberian peninsula. When Damascus was invaded in the early eighth century, the Islamic religious and political centre of the Mediterranean shifted to Kairouan in Tunisia. Their progress was limited only by the dense forests of West and Central Africa and to coastal areas in the East. The last region to come under Muslim influence was that of Nubia (moden- day northern Sudan) in the 1. In the west, there was a rise of large and powerful inland kingdoms, such as the Ghana (in Mali & Mauritania, no relation to modern Ghana), Dahomey (which lasted until French capture in 1. Benin), Za/Gao (in Mali and Niger), Kanem (in Chad), and Bornu (in Nigeria).
As many of these kingdoms converted to Islam, trans- Saharan trade grew as salt and gold were transported to Libya and Egypt in large caravans—a trade made possible by the introduction of camels from Arabia in the 1. Nigeria west to Mali and Mauritania until the 1. During the 1. 3th- 1. Mali (in Mali, Guinea, and Senegal) and later Soghay (in Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger) and a plethora of small, single- tribe kingdoms and city- states sprouted. Many of Mali's popular tourist destinations, including Timbuktu, Djenne, and Gao, rose to prominence during this period as they became centers of trade and Islamic scholarship during this period.
The Hausa tribes in northern Nigeria began organizing in walled city states, of which remnants remain in Kano. Coastal, forested West Africa remained largely unorganised, with the exceptions of a few Yoruba city- states of Benin, Ife, & Oyo along with small Dahomey and Igbo empires all in modern- day Benin and Nigeria. Between the 7th and 1. Arab slave trade—roughly twice as many as the Atlantic slave trade would take to the Americas. Today, that influence remains in the culture and gastronomy of many places, most notably on the Indian Ocean islands such as Zanzibar, Comoros, the Seychelles, and Mauritius.
The Kingdom of Zimbabwe (namesake of today's state) was one of the most notable, constructing the greatest stone structures in pre- colonial sub- Saharan Africa at their capital Great Zimbabwe. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe in modern eastern South Africa also left smaller stone ruins. Both profited from the trade in gold and ivory with Arab and Asian merchants. The Portuguese reached Cape Verde in 1. Guinea coast (modern Guinea- Bissau to Nigeria). The Portuguese set up numerous forts along the African coast and established a highly profitable trade, (initially) held good relations with locals, and remained the dominant European power in the region until the 1. Spain, France, and Britain began exploring the Americas.
As the demands for labour in the Americas grew, Portuguese sailors began taking shiploads of slaves to the Americas, beginning the Atlantic slave trade. In the early 1. 7th century, the Dutch fought the Portuguese to win control of most of their West and Central African ports, some (like Luanda) would be retaken later, and established a couple dozen forts of their own, notably at Goree Island in Dakar and at the Cape of Good Hope—a port they hoped to use for trade routes to East Asia and which has become modern- day Cape Town. In 1. 64. 2, the French built their first fort on Madagascar (which they claimed in 1. British built their first fort on the continent in the Gambia.
Swedish merchants established a fort on Cape Coast, which later was overpowered by the Danish nearby at modern Accra. With slavery abolished by Britain and their strong efforts to thwart slavery around the world, Europe began to look for other sources of wealth on the continent. The most successful European colony, the Dutch Cape Colony, was seized by the British in 1. Napoleonic France conquered Egypt in 1. Rosetta Stone, only to be forced out by the British and then the Turks.
France invaded a significant amount of coastal West Africa and the Barbary states in Algeria, cutting rampant piracy in the region. Accounts of brave adventurers travelling inland to find places such as Mount Kilimanjaro and rumored . Chief among explorers was the British national hero David Livingstone, who as a poor missionary with few porters explored much of Southern and Eastern Africa, flowed down the Congo River from its sources, and sought the source of the Nile. In West & Central Africa, French, Belgian, & Spanish explorers ventured into the Sahara to find the legendary Timbuktu and Malian gold mines and the Congo in search of the Pygmies and hairy, large peoples (gorillas) of Greek legend. With social Darwinism introduced, many countries saw Africa as a great opportunity to establish colonial empires and establish their pre- eminence among other European nations, chiefly Germany to catch up with other European nations and France, to regain glories lost in North America and under Napoleon.
Britain and Portugal joined this Scramble for Africa when they saw their interests threatened. In 1. 88. 5, the Berlin Conference brought together European colonial powers to carve up the continent into defined colonial territories with many straight lines and no input from any African kingdom or settlement. The dense jungles of Central Africa lured Joseph Conrad, who wrote the novel Heart of Darkness from his experience.
World War I saw one battle in German East Africa (Tanzania) which the British lost, although post- war, German possessions were divided amongst France, Belgium, & the UK. The Union of South Africa was granted independence from the UK in 1. World War Two saw Ethiopia invaded by Italy along with major fighting in North Africa in which the Nazis were eventually evicted by the Allies. It was the social changes stemming from the war, in which tens of thousands of Africans fought for their colonial power, along with the Atlantic Charter which led to the spread of nationalistic movements post- war. Colonial powers employed varying means of control over their colonies, some granting natives representation in the government and cultivating a select few civil servants while others maintained a firm grip with an all- European government.
In some countries, nationalist movements were quashed and their leaders killed or jailed while others were able to peacefully achieve independence. In the 1. 95. 0s, Guinea, Ghana, & North African nations gained independence non- violently with the exception of Algeria, where France violently fought independence movements until 1.